These important CCNP agreements, CCNA can't learn!

One of the CCNP protocols: the routing protocol of the IS-IS intermediate system to the intermediate system

(IS-IS: Intermediate System to Intermediate System Routing Protocol) The Intermediate System to Intermediate System Routing Protocol (IS-IS) is a routing protocol proposed by ISO. It is a link state protocol. In this protocol, the IS (router) is responsible for exchanging routing information based on link overhead and determining the network topology. IS-IS is similar to the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol for TCP/IP networks.

The ISO network consists of an end system, an intermediate system, an area, and a domain. The terminal system refers to the user equipment, and the intermediate system refers to the router. The local group formed by the router is called the “area”, and the multiple areas form a “domain”. IS-IS is designed to provide routing within a domain or within an area. IS-IS combines with CLNP, ES-IS and IDRP protocols to provide complete routing for the entire network.

IS-IS routing uses a two-tier routing system. Level 1 routers only know the topology in their area, including all routers and hosts, but not routers and destinations outside the area. The Level 1 router forwards all traffic destined for other areas to an L2 router in the area. The router knows the level 2 topology without knowing any level 1 topology unless the level 2 router is also the area. Level 1 router.

IS-IS, which is suitable for transmitting IP network information, is called Integrated IS-IS. Among the current routing protocols, Integrated IS-IS has one of the most important features: it supports VLSM and fast convergence. It is also scalable to support large-scale networks.

CCNP Protocol II: IOS Definition

Cisco's Internet Operating System (IOS) is a complex operating system optimized for Internetworking -- similar to a local area operating system (NOS), such as Novell's NetWare, optimized for LANs. IOS provides a unified rule for long-term cost-effective maintenance of an Internet. In short, it is a software architecture that is separate from the hardware and can be dynamically upgraded to adapt to changing technologies (hardware and software) as network technologies evolve. IOS can be viewed as an Internetworking hub: a highly intelligent administrator responsible for managing the functions of controlling complex distributed network resources.

Third of the CCNP Agreement: IGP

IGP (Interior Gateway Protocols) Interior Gateway Protocol

The Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) is a protocol that is used to exchange data flow channel information between gateways in an autonomous network system (for example, an autonomous network system within a local community). Network IP protocols or other network protocols often use these channel information to determine how to transmit data streams. 

Currently, the two most commonly used internal gateway protocols are Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Shortest Path First Routing Protocol. Currently, IGP has protocols such as RIP, OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP, and IS-IS. (OSPF).

The fourth CCNP protocol: IPv6

IPv6 is an abbreviation of Internet Protocol Version 6, in which Internet Protocol is translated as "Internet Protocol."

IPv6 is a next-generation IP protocol designed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) to replace the current version of the IP protocol (IPv4).

The protocol family used in the current global Internet is the TCP/IP protocol suite. IP is the protocol of the network layer in the TCP/IP protocol suite and is the core protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Currently, the version number of the IP protocol is 4 (abbreviated as IPv4), and the next version is IPv6. IPv6 is in the process of continuous development and improvement, and it will replace the widely used IPv4 in the near future. Everyone will have more IP addresses.

Five of the CCNP Agreement: STP

STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is an abbreviation of Spanning Tree Protocol. The protocol can be applied to the loop network to implement path redundancy through a certain algorithm. At the same time, the loop network is pruned into a loop-free tree network to avoid the proliferation and infinite loop of packets in the loop network.

The basic principle of STP is to determine the topology of the network by passing a special protocol message between the switches (this protocol message is called "configuration message" in IEEE 802.1D). The configuration message contains enough information to ensure that the switch completes the spanning tree calculation.

The main application of the Spanning Tree Protocol is to avoid the network loopback in the LAN and solve the "broadcast storm" problem of the looped Ethernet network. In a sense, it is a network protection technology that can eliminate errors or accidents. The loop connection that comes.

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